Sunday, September 18, 2016

Teresa Teng 鄧麗君 Kata koi Zake

Country Management - On Policy Amendment [国家管理 - 论政策的变更]

Country Management - On Policy Amendment

[国家管理 - 论政策的变更]

1 Introduction

In country management, policy amendment is same as policy making, is a regular recurring work. Due to the change of applicable internal and external environments, the change of management objects, the change of management purposes, the improvement of the applicable management measures, etc., current policy needs to be revised and adjusted. When a policy completely loses its applicable environment, applicable object and applicable management purposes, this policy can be fully terminated.

2. Policy Amendment and Policy Framework

Policy amendment, of course, is a process of policy making. In the policy framework, policy amendment belongs to policy development; the difference is that this policy-making process is based on the existing policy basis. Therefore, the policy framework also applies to policy amendment this decision-making process.

3. Policy Amendment

3.1. Social Issue Determination for Policy Amendment

Policy amendment is made on the social issue concerned by the existing policy, and therefore the social issue for the policy amendment is the social issue of the policy to be changed, and such issue can not be completely changed. If it is completely changed, then it is not policy amendment but the legislature of a new policy. However, existing social issue can be appropriately expanded, narrowed or refined according to the above-mentioned changes.

The process of determining the social issue of policy amendment is the same as that of determining the social issue of policy making (see my article, "Country Management - Policy Making"), which also includes:

3.1.1. Process Analysis

3.1.2. Surface Phenomenon Analysis

3.1.3. Root Cause Analysis

3.1.4. Control Point Analysis

3.1.5. Control Volume Analysis

Control volume analysis is an amendment I would like to make here. After determining the control point of the policy, we must also determine the reasonable and legitimate policy efforts to ensure that policy can be effectively implemented, and minimize the negative impact of the policy to the max degree.

3.2. Requirement for Policy Amendment

Unlike policy making, policy amendment need to determine the requirement for the amendment, such as: changes in applicable internal and external environment, changes in the applicable management object, changes of the management purpose, the improvement of the applicable management measures, The above analysis process also applies to the determination of the requirement for the policy amendment.

3.3. Types of Policy Changes

3.3.1. Amendment of Management Objects

The amendment of management objects refers to the confirmation, refinement and subdivision of the management objects of the existing policy according to the current situation, and determines the content of the policy amendment according to the revised management objects.

3.3.2. Amendment of the Management Object’s Social Environment

The amendment of management object’s social environment refers to the confirmation, refinement, subdivision, expanding and shrinking of social environment which the management object of existing policy is based on according to current situation, and determines the content of the policy amendment according to the revised management object’s social environment.

3.3.3. The Amendment of Management Objectives of Management Main Body

The amendment of management objectives of the management main body refers to the confirmation, refinement, subdivision, expanding and shrinking of the existing policy management objectives according to the current situation, and determines the content of the policy amendment according to the revised management objectives of the management main body.

3.3.4. Improvement of Management Measures of Management Main Body

Improvement of management main body’s management measures refers to the confirmation, refinement, subdivision, expanding and shrinking of the existing policy’s management measures according to the current situation, and determines the content of policy amendment according to the revised management measures of the management main body.

Of course, the policy changes may not be comprehensive, and sometimes may only be related to individual aspects of the original policy

3.4. Foundation for Policy Amendment

3.4.1. Revising and amending existing policy in order to adapt to the changed internal and external environment, the changed the management objects, in order to realize the purpose of changed management purpose, and to improve the existing management measures;

3.4.2. Revising and amending existing policy in order to optimize management;

3.5. Principles of Policy Amendment

3.5.1. General Principles

- Rationalization management
- Legalization Management
- Orderly management
- Controllable management
- Reward and Punishment management

3.5.2. Special principles

- Stability Principle
- Gradualness Principle
- Pilot Principle
- Economic Principle

3.6. Strategy

Regarding policy amendment strategy, first of all, we shall emphasize the time strategy, that is to say policy amendment must be implemented in good time; then we shall emphasize the need strategy, that is to say that policy amendment must be on-demand and must not be subjectively made because of man-made or political factors.

Strategies and principles are consistent, for example: policy amendment shall emphasize the stability strategy; that is to say that policy amendment shall not be abrupt, shall be able to ensure social stability.

3.7. Content and Measures

3.7.1. Guiding Legislation on the Policy Framework for Policy Amendment

In order to avoid the negative impact of improper policy amendment to the country and society, and to raise the operational level of policy-makers, the policy amendment framework for policy change can be legalized as a guiding legislation.

3.7.2. The other contents and measures are the specific contents and measures of each amended policy.

4. Case Study - Property Transfer Tax (15%) for Overseas Buyers in BC Province

4.1. The Determination of the Social Issues of Policy Amendment and the Determination of the Requirement for the Amendment

This social issue is property management, which includes property tax management and property transfer tax management.

4.1.1. Process Analysis Surface Phenomenon Analysis

The property market in BC province shifted from a purely domestic buyer-dominated market to a market dominated by overseas buyers, and lead to a surge in property price, which made it difficult for national buyers to bear and created difficulties for national buyers to buy property, at the same time, phenomenon of overseas buyer vacant property appeared. Root Cause Analysis

The market object of BC province’s property market has changed, the existing policy does not have terms regarding the overseas buyers, and oversea buyers’ property acquisition is for the purpose of investment and value growth.

4.1.2. Control Point Analysis

The surge in property prices may be due to the lack of property supply and a rise of overseas buyers. Insufficient supply of property goods is subject to other policy issues. For overseas buyers, BC's property market management policy does not have discriminate policy on overseas buyers, nor does it have a policy on vacant properties. Therefore, the control point lies in overseas buyers and vacant property.

4.1.3. Control Volume Analysis

Based on the special principles of policy amendment, such as stability and gradualness, Property policy on overseas buyers and vacant property should be amended, but the tax rate should be reasonable, can also play a certain leverage role. For example: overseas property tax (5%), vacant property tax (5%). Property transfer is not a control point of this policy issue. Restricting the circulation and transfer of property may completely exclude overseas buyers, but it can not eliminate the phenomenon of vacant property. The negative impact on the property market can not be ignored. The purpose of this policy issue amendment is not to completely exclude oversea buyers. As a result, the control point and control volume of BC province's property transfer tax (15%) policy for overseas buyers are worth to question.

4.2. Types of Policy Amendment

This policy amendment belongs to the amendment of management objects and the amendment of objectives.

4.3. Principles of Policy Amendment

The principles for this policy change are stability and gradualness principles.

4.4. Strategy

The strategy for this policy amendment is the appropriate control strategy.

4.5. Content and measures

The more correct approach is: Amending two property management tax: overseas property tax (5%), vacant property tax (5%).

5. Summary

In conclusion, the policy amendment, is staged, is the response to the change, but also the main measure of proactive management. In amending policy, we must make detailed analysis and verification on the social issue and change requirement, in order to well determine the control point, the control volume, grasp well the principles of policy amendment, so as to let the amended policy to well serve the country management, economic construction and people’s living and work in peace.

1.   引言


2.   政策变更与政策框架

政策的变更和修正当然也是一个政策制定的过程。在政策框架中,政策的变更属于政策的发展, 其不同在于这一政策制定的过程是在现有政策的基础上进行的。因此,政策框架也同样适用于政策变更这一决策过程。

3.   政策变更

3.1.                  政策变更社会议题的确立


政策变更社会议题确立的过程同政策制定社会议题确立的过程是一样的 (详见我的文章《 [国家管理 - 论政策的制定] 》,也包括:

3.1.1.                     过程分析
3.1.2.                     表象分析
3.1.3.                     根源分析
3.1.4.                     控制点分析
3.1.5.                     控制量分析


3.2.                  政策变更需求的确立

同政策制定不同的是,政策的变更需要确定变更的需求, 例如:内外部环境的改变管理对象的改变管理目的的变化管理手段的完善。上述的分析过程也是同样适用于政策变更需求的确立的。

3.3.                  政策变更的类别

3.3.1.                     管理对象的修正


3.3.2.                     管理对象的社会环境的修正


3.3.3.                     管理主体的管理目标的修正


3.3.4.                     管理主体管理手段的完善



3.4.                  政策变更的基础

3.4.1.                        修正和变更现有的政策以适应变化了的内外部环境,变化了的管理对象,以实现改变了的管理目的,以完善现有的管理手段;


3.5.                  政策变更的原则

3.5.1.                     通用原则

-          合理化管理
-          合法化管理
-          有序化管理
-          控制性管理
-          奖惩性管理

3.5.2.                     特别原则

-          稳定性原则
-          渐变性原则
-          试点性原则
-          经济性原则

3.6.                  策略



3.7.                  内容及措施

3.7.1.                     对政策的变更的政策框架进行指导性立法


3.7.2.                     其他的内容及措施则是每一个变更的政策的具体内容及措施

4.   案例分析- BC 省的针对海外买家的物业转让税(15%

4.1.                  政策变更社会议题及变更需求的确立


4.1.1.                     过程分析                        表象分析

BC省的物业市场由纯粹的国内买家主导的市场转向为由海外买家主导的市场,并因此导致物业价格飙升,使得本国国民买家难以承受,并出现本国国民购房困难的现象,同时出现海外买家空置物业的现象。                        根源分析


4.1.2.                     控制点分析


4.1.3.                     控制量分析

基于政策变更的特别性原则,例如:稳定性和渐变性。应当针对海外买家和空置物业而增加相应的物业政策,但税率应当是合理的,同时又能够起到一定的杠杆作用的。例如:海外置业税(5%),空置物业税(5%)。物业的转让并非该政策议题的控制点,限制物业的流通和转让可能会完全排除海外买家,但却不能够消除空置物业的现象,对于物业市场的负面影响也是不可忽视的。该政策 议题的变更的目的不是要完全排除海外买家的。因此,BC 省的针对海外买家的物业转让税(15%)的控制点和控制量都是值得商榷的。

4.2.                  政策变更的类别


4.3.                  政策变更的原则


4.4.                  策略


4.5.                  内容及措施


5.   总结

总之,政策的变更,是阶段性的, 是对变化的应对,也是主动管理的主要手段。在对政策进行变更时,一定要对社会议题及变更需求进行详细的分析论证,要确定好控制点,掌握好控制量, 把握好政策变更的原则, 这样才能够使变更后的政策更好的为国家管理,经济建设和人民安居乐业而服务。

-- Beizhan Liu

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