Saturday, May 6, 2017

Country Management – Global Internal Security Governance – On International Anti-Terrorism Policy Framework and Key Policies 国家管理-全球内务安全治理-论国际反恐政策框架和关键政策

Country Management – Global Internal Security Governance – On International Anti-Terrorism Policy Framework and Key Policies


1.      Introduction

After talking about global internal security governance and global military security governance, I would like to talk further about specific international anti-terrorism policy framework and key policies. The establishments of international anti-terrorism policy framework and key policies are the foundation of international anti-terrorism policy and the policy foundations for all counter-terrorism measures. A well-designed anti-terrorism policy framework and key policies will be possible to completely eliminate international terrorist activities. Other policies and policy frameworks for global internal security governance can also be established in accordance with the discussion in this paper.

2.      International Anti-Terrorism

2.1.      History

The history of international anti-terrorism is linked to the emergence of international terrorism. The definition of terrorism first appeared in English was in France in 1798 [1]. In the 1880s, the British Ministry of the Interior set up the first anti-terrorism unit to deal with the militarization of the Irish Sinn Fein party [2]. The United Kingdom enacted the first <<Anti-Violence Act>> in 1939 to deal with the violence of Irish Republic Army[2]. In 2000 this act was amended as <<Terrorism Act 2000>>[2]. The United States passed <<American Patriot Act>> after the September 11 terrorist attack[2]. Terrorism became an international issue in 1934. The predecessor of the United Nations - the League of Nations, drafted and adopted an international convention on the prevention and punishment of terrorism in 1937, but was not implemented [3]. At present, there are 15 international conventions on anti-terrorism. On September 8, 2006, the United Nations Security Council adopted the "global anti-terrorism strategy"[3]. At present, many countries in the world have enacted anti-terrorism bills, and most of them have established relevant anti-terrorism agencies. China passed its own <<Anti-Terrorism Act>> on December 27, 2015. China's anti-terrorism organization is Snow Leopard Commando[2].

The world shocked international terrorism events happened in history were: the Munich massacre incident in 1972, Lufthansa hijacking incident in 1977, the 2004 Air France incident, the 2002 Moscow Theater hostage incident, the 2004 the
Beslanykau Middle School hostage incident, 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. A series of recent terrorist attacks happened internationally are listed in the schedule in part 5.

2.2.      International anti-terrorism policy framework

2.2.1.     Foundation

The foundation of international anti-terrorism policy framework lies in:

• The international community needs a peaceful development environment
• Social members of every country need a safe living environment

2.2.2.     Strategy

The international anti-terrorism strategy firstly is to prevent before burning, to take management and control measures on international terrorist event planners and planned activities in advance. The key strategies for international anti-terrorism are the interruption of communication command for the planned terrorist events (management and control of communication) and the interruption of terrorist operations (management and control of transportation and borders). The international anti-terrorism strategy also includes punishment on terrorists.

2.2.3.      Content

• Policy framework content based on the prevention of terrorist incident

  • Screening and identification of high-risk groups and individuals
  • Screening and resolving of terrorist motivation
  • Prevention and stop of terrorist activity planning
  • The interruption of the terrorist activity commands
  • The interruption of terrorist actions
  • Management and control of terrorist instruments (guns, vehicles, etc.)
• Policy framework content based on responding to terrorist incident
  • Enhancement of social members’ anti-terrorism and self-protection  consciousness
  • Establishment of rapid prevention mechanism
  • Fast handling of on-site terrorists
• Policy framework content based on the punishment on terrorist

  • Punishment on terrorist event planner
  • Punishment on executors of the terrorist incident
  • Punishment on the poor handlers of the terrorist incident
• Policy framework content based on international anti-terrorism cooperation

  • Establishment of international information exchange mechanism
  • Establishment of coping mechanism for international terrorist incident
  • Establishment of cooperation mechanism for international terrorist punishment
2.2.4.      Development

This policy framework content can be further developed according to each country’s specific circumstances.

2.2.5.      Implementation

The corresponding laws and regulations can be gradually established and improved in accordance with international anti-terrorism policy framework, the relevant mechanisms and departments can also be improved.

2.3.      The key policies for international anti-terrorism

In line with the above policy framework, the key policies of international anti-terrorism may include:

2.3.1. Policy framework content based on the prevention of terrorist incident

• Policies for high-risk groups and individuals can include:

  • Monitoring or interruption of cross-border international calls
  • Monitoring or interruption of cross-border social network
  • Strengthen the firearm management on high risk groups and individuals
• Management policies for any kind foreign organizations and individuals may include:

  • Background investigation
  • Motivation investigation
  • Control of the activity scope (should reduce the possible contact of foreign terror command commuters with local high-risk groups)
2.3.2. Policy framework content based on responding to terrorist incident

The content of this part has been fully emphasized by every country; I will not elaborate here any more.

2.3.3. Policy framework content based on the punishment on terrorist

• Policies for persons directly involved in terrorist activities may include:
  • Involved terrorists’ oral confession shall try to be got in order to get the witnesses of terrorist activity planners
• Policies for foreign terrorist activity planners shall include:

  • Surveillance and evidence acquisition for persons involved in the planning of terrorist activities in the third country
  • Cross-border arrests and litigation of persons involved in the planning of terrorist activities in third country (in case of having conclusive evidence, cross-border arrests can be implemented and litigation can be processed after obtaining the permission of third country's security department’s executive officer. This kind arresting right and litigation right can be valid throughout the life of the crime suspect. And if the suspect has passed away, the confirmed crime facts shall be delivered to the descendants of the crime suspect for showing punishment.)
2.3.4. Policy framework content based on international anti-terrorism cooperation

·      Cooperation and coordination of the punishment on international terrorists (planners and actors) (cross-border arrests and litigation)

3. Precautions

International anti-terrorism is a very important international issue. But it should be noted that it can not thus affect the democratic right of ordinary citizens in any country. International anti-terrorism policy can not be abused; ordinary citizen can not be treated as terrorist suspect. On the other hand, when national security interest is conflicted with individual citizen’s democratic right, the individual's democratic right should give way to the security interest of the country.

4. Conclusion

International anti-terrorism is a difficult and long-term task, but terrorist incident can not be said that it can not be completely eliminated. Establishing sound international anti-terrorism policy framework, establishing comprehensive international anti-terrorism policy system is not only very necessary, but also is the first priority. The key anti-terrorism policy should include the prevention and stop of terrorist incident planning activities, the interruption of the transmission of terrorist activity commands, and so on. It is important to have punishment policy on direct participators in terrorist activities, but it is even more important to have punishment policies on the planners of terrorist activities. To eliminate the terrorist activities, we have to resolve terrorist motivations as much as possible, to resolve the possible contradictions and conflicts of interest. Terrorist activity is a kind devastating activity that is detrimental to others while having no benefits for the terrorists themselves. I also advise those who are keen on making terrorist events to hold the horse before the cliffs, to be able to do something that is beneficial for themselves and for others, to be able to give some contributions to the peace and the security of the world which they should.

5. Schedule - list of recent terrorist incidents

• April 7, 2017, Sweden Stockholm truck terrorist attack
• March 22, 2017, London, United Kingston, parliament building terrorist attack
• January 29, 2017, the Quebec mosque terrorist attack in Canada
• December 19, 2016, Berlin, Germany, the Christmas market terrorist attack
• October 24, 2016, Pakistan's Balochistan Quetta City terrorist attack
• July 14, 2016, France Nice truck terrorist attack
• June 12, 2016, Florida Orlando nightclub terrorist attack
• March 22, 2016, Belgium, Brussels terrorist attack

1.   前言


2.   国际反恐

2.1.      历史

国际反恐的历史是和国际恐怖主义的出现相联系的。对于恐怖主义的定义在英文中首先出现在1798年的法国[1] 。英国内务部在1880年代为了对付军事化的爱尔兰新芬党成立了第一个反恐部门 [2] 。英国在1939年为了对付爱尔兰共和军的暴力活动制定了第一部《反暴力法案》[2]。在2000年该法案被修正为《恐怖主义法案2000[2]。美国在911恐怖袭击后通过了《美国爱国者法案》[2]。恐怖主义在1934年就成为一个国际性的议题,联合国的前身-国际联盟1937 就曾草拟并采纳了有关对恐怖主义进行防范和惩罚的国际公约,但未实施[3]。目前,共有15个实施中的反恐国际公约。200698日,联合国安理会采纳了“全球反恐策略[3]。目前,世界上许多国家都订立有反恐的法案,也大都建立有相关的反恐机构。中国在20151227 日通过了自己的《反恐法案》。中国的反恐组织是雪豹突击队[2]


2.2.      国际反恐的政策框架
2.2.1.                     基础


·         国际社会需要一个和平的发展环境
·         每一个国家的社会成员都需要一个安全的生存环境

2.2.2.                     策略


2.2.3.                     内容

·         基于预防恐怖事件的政策框架的内容

o        高危群体和个体的甄别
o        恐怖活动动机的甄别及化解
o        恐怖活动策划的预防及阻止
o        恐怖活动指令传递的中断
o        恐怖分子行动的中断
o        恐怖分子的作案工具的管控(枪支,车辆,等等)

·         基于应对恐怖事件的政策框架的内容

o        社会成员反恐意识及自我保护意识的增强
o        快速防范机制的建立
o        现场恐怖分子的快速处理

·         基于惩罚恐怖分子的政策框架的内容

o        对于恐怖事件策划者的惩戒
o        对于恐怖事件执行者的惩戒
o        对于恐怖事件处理不力者的惩戒

·         基于反恐国际合作的政策框架的内容

o        国际情报交流机制的建立
o        国际恐怖事件应对机制的建立
o        国际恐怖分子惩戒的合作机制的建立

2.2.4.                     发展


2.2.5.                     实施


2.3.      国际反恐的关键政策


2.3.1.                     基于预防恐怖事件的政策框架的内容

·         高危群体和个体的管理的政策可以包括:

o        跨境国际通话的监视或中断
o        跨境社交网络的监视或中断
o        加强高危群体和个体的枪支管理

·         对于任何外来组织及个人的管理政策可以包括:

o        背景调查
o        动机调查
o        活动范围的控制(应减少可能的境外恐怖指令传递者同本国高危群体的接触)

2.3.2.                     基于应对恐怖事件的政策框架的内容


2.3.3.                     基于惩罚恐怖分子的政策框架的内容

·         对于直接参与恐怖活动的涉案人员的政策可以包括:

o        要尽量获得涉案恐怖人员的口供,以取得恐怖活动策划的人证

·         对于境外恐怖活动策划者的政策应包括:

o        对第三国涉嫌策划恐怖活动的相关人员的监视及取证
o        对第三国涉嫌策划恐怖活动的相关的人员的跨境抓捕及诉讼(在有确凿证据的情况下,在征得第三国安全部门主管的许可后,即可实施跨境抓捕并提起诉讼。这种抓捕权和诉讼权的有效性可以贯穿犯罪嫌疑人的一生。如果犯罪嫌疑人已经过世,则其确认的犯罪事实应当送达其后人以示惩戒。)

2.3.4.                     基于反恐国际合作的政策框架的内容

·         对于国际恐怖分子(策划者和行动者)惩戒的合作及协调(跨境抓捕及诉讼)

3.   注意事项

国际反恐是一项非常重要的国际议题。但要注意不可以因此影响到任何一个国家的普通公民的正当的民主权利。国际反恐的政策不可以被滥用,不可以将正常的普通公民视为恐怖嫌疑人来对待。另外一个方面,当国家安全利益与公民个人民主权利发生矛盾时, 个人的民主权利应当让位于国家的安全利益。

4.   结语


5.   附表 -最近发生的恐怖事件列表

·         201747日,瑞典斯德哥尔摩卡车恐怖袭击案
·         2017322日,英国伦敦议会大厦恐怖袭击案
·         2017129 日,加拿大魁北克清真寺恐怖袭击案
·         201612 19 日,德国柏林圣诞市场恐怖袭击案
·         20161024日,巴基斯坦俾路支省奎达市恐怖袭击案
·         2016714日,法国尼斯卡车恐怖袭击案
·         2016612日,美国佛罗里达奥兰多夜总会恐怖袭击案
·         2016322日,比利时布鲁塞尔恐怖袭击案
·         20151113 日,法国巴黎音乐厅恐怖袭击案
·         201517日,法国查理周刊恐怖袭击案
·         20141215日,澳大利亚悉尼金融中心恐怖袭击案
·         20141217日,巴基斯坦白沙瓦国防学校恐怖袭击案
·         20141022日,加拿大国会恐怖袭击案
·         2013415日,美国波士顿马拉松恐怖爆炸案

  -- Beizhan Liu 

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